Retinal evaluation, or fundus, is a procedure called fundoscopy.
Opticians examine the retina by holding lens or contact lens using a wide-angle lens. These tools help the doctor identify eye disease. And due to the optomed, this process has become much easier and safer today.
The eyeball includes vitreous humor in its structure. The vitreous is a colourless gel that fills the eyeball and is placed under the lens area, in front of the retina in the back of the eye. To process visual data in the outside world, this liquid has no colour and light waves pass through it because of this colorlessness. This liquid includes water and does not contain any blood vessels that could feed it nutrients. Also, this liquid contains special cells, which are the reason why specialists examine the fundus to detect diseases. Thus, there is likely to have an increased content of red blood cells or white blood cells, which lead to inflammation and discomfort in the eyes.
The optic nerve
The optic nerve also requires medical intervention and timely examination. First of all, doctors look at the cup, especially the colour and contour of this body. There may be such deviations from health as a serious eye disease, and in order for the doctor to call the diagnosis, he examines the vertical and horizontal cup-to-disc ratios. If the specialist finds an asymmetry in their structure, he will offer the patient appropriate treatment.
In this analysis, there are such important factors as the colour of the disk. If it is too pale, the doctor can detect glaucoma or optic atrophy, ischemia and trauma can cause them. In particular, this happens after damage to the eye by splinters and when the optic nerve contour is disturbed. If the patient does not make a timely medical examination, he or she may be at risk of diseases such as inflammation and increased intracranial pressure.
The retina is a light-sensitive layer that is located at the back of the eyeball. It occupies more than 65% of its volume. There is one general function in which the retina is executed. Thus light-sensitive cells of the retina convert the energy of light waves into special impulses that enter the brain through the optic nerve.
The small recess is located in the middle of the retina, and it performs the function of clear vision and the recognition of colours and shades in the outside world, to which humans pay attention. The focused bunch of the light waves undergoes electrochemical reactions such as phototransduction, in the eyeball. The human eye contains two types of photoreceptor cells, such as rods and cones. There are more than 120 million of these and they are concentrated in the centre of the macula and perform such a function as vision in full colour vision.
The macula is the centre part of the retina. It causes severe illness and even complete visual loss if the patient does not consult a doctor in time. The human eyeball has many photoreceptors and other nerve cells in the body of the macula. This is why this part of the eye is responsible for clear vision and surpasses the retina in this issue. In the centre of the macula, the fovea is located. Thus, when human looks at a particular point in the space of the surrounding world (for example on the letter in this article), it is the macula that is responsible for the clarity of perception of this retro-reflective object.
The peripheral retina
There is also such a body in the retina as the peripheral retina. Retinal tears and retinal detachment can affect diseases associated with the eyeball too. There are such of them as:
- choroidal nevus;
- retinal degeneration;
- retinal dystrophy;
- equatorial drusen;
- choroidal tumours.